1-Describe the basal ganglia , their connection , motor function , its chemical transmitter and clinical syndrome caused by its damage. )15 marks) 2-Role of dominant cerebral hemisphere in thought process and speech. (10 marks). 3- Effect of asymetrical stimulation of S.C.C of vestibular system.(10 marks). 4- Retinal adaptation. (9 marks ). 5- Discrimination of sound. (9 marks). 6- Control of secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. ( 10 marks). 7- Function of Sertoli cells. (10 marks). 8- Autoregulation of renal blood flow : definition - range - significance – mechanisms. ( 10 marks). 9- Mechanism of Na reabsorption in loop of Henle and DCT . How these mechanisms can be blocked. (10 marks ). 10- Vomiting : Types – Mechanisms. (9 marks). 11 - Mechanism of fecal continence. ( 9 marks). 12 - a)Obesity : definition - causes - hazards - metabolic effects – management. ( 7 marks). b) Routes - Mechanism of heat loss. (7 marks).