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 Self assessment questions on central nervous system

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مُساهمةموضوع: Self assessment questions on central nervous system   الأربعاء مارس 16, 2011 6:05 am

For each question, state whether points from (a) to (e) true or false and explain your answer:


1- A reflex action:

a. Is initiated at a sensory receptor organ.
b. May result in endocrine secretion.
c. Involves transmission across at least two central nervous synapses in series.
d. May be excitatory or inhibitory.
e. Is independent of higher centers in the brain

.
2-In skeletal muscle neuromuscular junctions:

a. The motor end plate is the motor nerve terminal.
b. Spontaneous (miniature) potentials may be recorded in the motor nerve terminal.
c. Motor nerve terminals have vesicles containing acetylcholine.
d. There is a high concentration of acetylcholinesterase.
e. Transmission is facilitated by botulinum toxin.



3-In sensory receptors:

a. Stimulus energy is converted into a local depolarization.
b. The generator potential is graded and self-propagating.
c. A generator potential can be produced by only one form of energy.
d. The frequency of action potentials generated doubles when the strength of the stimulus doubles.
e. Serving touch sensation, constant suprathreshold stimulation causes action potentials to be generated at a constant rate.



4-A somatic lower motor neuron:

a. Innervates fewer fibers in an eye muscle than does one innervating a leg muscle.
b. Conducts impulses at a speed similar to that in an autonomic postganglionic neuron.
c. Is unmyelinated.
d. Conducts impulses which cause relaxation in some skeletal muscles.
e. Synapse with skeletal muscle but not with other neurons.



5-Impulses serving pain sensation in the left foot are relayed:

a. Across synapses in the left posterior root ganglion.
b. By fibers in the left spinothalamic tract.
c. By the same spinal cord tract which serves heat and cold sensation.
d. To the thalamus on the right side.
e. To the cerebral cortex before entering consciousness.



6-An excitatory post-synaptic potential:

a. Is the depolarization of a post-synaptic nerve cell membrane that occurs when a presynaptic neuron is stimulated.
b. Involves reversal of polarity across the post-synaptic nerve cell membrane.
c. May be recorded from a posterior root ganglion cell.
d. Is propagated at the same rate as an action potential.
e. Is caused by the electrical field induced by activity in the pre-synaptic nerve terminals.



7-The cerebellum:

a. Modifies the discharge of spinal motor neurons.
b. Is essential for finely coordinated movements.
c. Has an afferent input from the motor cortex.
d. Has an afferent input from muscle proprioceptors.
e. Has an afferent input from the vestibular system.



8-During deep sleep there is a fall in:

a. Hand skin temperature.
b. Arterial PCO2.
c. Blood growth hormone/cortisol ratio.
d. Metabolic rate.
e. Urine formation.



9-Sympathetic:

a. Ganglionic transmission is mediated by acetylcholine.
b. Neuromuscular transmission at the heart is mediated by adrenaline.
c. Neuromuscular transmission in hand skin arterioles is mediated by acetylcholine.
d. Neuroglandular transmission at eccrine sweat glands is mediated by noradrenaline.
e. Neuromuscular transmission at the iris is mediated by noradrenaline.



10-The electroencephalogram normally shows voltage waves:

a. Whose amplitude is related to intelligence.
b. Of smaller amplitude during deep sleep than during alert wakefulness.
c. Of lower frequency during deep sleep than during alert wakefulness.
d. Of greater amplitude than those of the electrocardiogram.
e. Which are bilaterally symmetrical.



Answer



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مُساهمةموضوع: MCQs and SEQs on nervous system   الجمعة مارس 25, 2011 10:56 am

1- Branches are to trees as…………. are to neurons.
a-soma. b-dendrites. c-cell bodies. d-nuclei.
e-Nissel granules.


2-Loss of the ability of the brain to produce adequate levels of dopamine often leads to……………….
a-Aphasia. b-Parkinson’s disease. c-Alzheimer’s disease. d-Amnesia. e-Tabes dorsalis.


3- Insulation is to electric wire as the …………..is to an axon.
a-synapse. b- soma. c-myelin sheath.
d-terminal button. e-neurotransmitter.


4-Cells found in the nervous system that insulate and nourish neurons as well as remove dead neurons and waste products are known as ……
a-glia. b-neurotransmitters. c-synapses. d-soma. e-neuromodulators.


5-The term plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to ……………………….
a-separate itself physically in response to skull trauma.
b-make new synaptic connections.
c-make neural connections in the womb (uterus) as the brain forms.
d-adapt novel situations by rerouting neural signals from the thalamus.
e-secrete neurotransmitter.


6- An action potential involves the movement of ………………..
a-glucose into the axon. b-molecules in the synaptic gap.
c-fats out of the axon terminal. d-sodium ions into the axon.
e-amino acids into the axon.


7- The space between a terminal button and a dendrite is referred to as the ……………
a-midsynaptic potential. b-neurotransmitter.
c-transmission gap. d-synaptic cleft.
e-Bowman’s space.


8-Neurotransmitters and some hormones are stored in ……………….
a-mitochondria. b-dendrites. c-synaptic vesicles. d-Nissel granules. e-axon.


9- Nerves outside the skull and spine comprise the ……………………..
a-peripheral nervous system. b-vagus nervous system. c-vascular nervous system. d-central nervous system. e-limbic system.


10-Ali was walking through the student parking lot when he heard a car backfire. His heart started to race and he began to perspire in response to the sudden, startling noise. These physical reactions were triggered by Ali’s ……….
a-somatic nervous system. b-motor nervous system. c-sympathetic nervous system. d-parasympathetic nervous system. e-vagus nervous system.


11-An electrical potential that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire is called an …………..
a-all-or-none potential. b-excitatory postsynaptic potential.
c-inhibitory postsynaptic potential. d-excitatory presynaptic potential.
e-inhibitory Renshawa potential.


12-Reabsorption of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron is referred to as………….
a-cyclomyosis. b-regarding. c-uploading.
d-reuptake. e-hydrolysis.


13-Which of the following neurotransmitters is primarily involved in the activation of motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles?
a-GABA. b-serotonin. c-dopamine.
d-acetylcholine. e-glutamate.


14- The part of the nervous system that controls perspiration and arousal is the …………………..
a-somatic nervous system. b-sensory nervous system. c-motor nervous system. d-end plate system. e-autonomic nervous system.


15-After confronting an emergency situation, which part of the nervous system returns the body to homeostasis?
a-somatic. b-sympathetic. c-central. d-sensory. e-parasympathetic.



16-The tiny electrical charge that exists when a neuron is not receiving and/or sending information is called ……………
a-a synaptic cleft. b-a resting potential. c-a synaptic gap. d-a post synaptic potential. e-an end plate potential.


17- The parasympathetic nervous system stimulates which of the following functions?
a-increased urine secretion. b-heart rate increased. c-pupils dilated. d-erection of penis in male. e-accommodation for far vision.

18-SEQs:
a. A cluster of cell bodies in the CNS is called ……………………….
b. A cluster of cell bodies in the PNS is called …………………………..
c. What is white matter? Gray matter?
d. Differentiate between afferent and efferent neurons.
e. What do we mean by autonomic nervous system is a doublke neurone system?
f. What is the all-or-nothing phenomenon?
g. Describe the events of the propagation of an action potential through a synapse to the next dendrite.
h. Name the 5 lobes of the Cerebrum and the main functions of each?
i. What cortex is in the pre-central gyrus?
j. What cortex is in the Post central gyrus?
k. Association areas and their main functions.
l. Functions of basal ganglia include……………..
m. Properties of receptors include……………..
n. Parkinsonism is manifested by……………….
o. Neocerebellar syndrome manifestations include……………….







Answer


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مُساهمةموضوع: Some short essay questions on nervous system   الإثنين مارس 28, 2011 4:13 pm

1-Elements of reflex arc includes.............................
2-Sensory receptor is defined as .................................................
3-Receptor potential is characterized by................................................
4-Types of receptors according to rate of adaptation includes............
5-Types of excitatory post synaptic potentials include.......................
6-Renshawa inhibtion means....................................
7-Differences between somatic and autonomic nerves include................
8-Types of stretch reflex include..........................
9-Manifestations of parkinsonism include................
10-Chorea is caused by........................
11-Types of tremors are.........................
12-Functions of extrapyramidal tracts include................
13-Role of cerebellum in controlling voluntary movements..........
14-define ataxia and mention its types
15-rapid eye movement sleep is characterized by............
16-possible mechanism of nseizures................
17-effect of autonomic supply on: eye-heart-salivary glands and pelvic organs
18-nervi eregentes
19-types of memory
20-referred pain mechanism
21-types of cutaneous pain
22-hyperalgesia
23-mass reflex
24-myopia
25-causes of meiosis
26-Horner's syndrome
27-homonymous hemianopia
28-retinal adaptation
29-1ry colors
30-sound properties
31-limbic system function
32-auditory cortex
33-protanopia
34-motor apraxia
35-types of equilibrium
36-tabes dorsalis
37-taste modalities
38-types of aphasia
39-word blindness
40-cacosmia
41-parosmia
42-types of summation
43-neocerebellar syndrome
44-sleep disorders
45-consolidation of memory




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Self assessment questions on central nervous system
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