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 Multiple choice questions (128 questions) with their answers on endocrine and reproductive physiology

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مُساهمةموضوع: Multiple choice questions (128 questions) with their answers on endocrine and reproductive physiology    الجمعة ديسمبر 03, 2010 8:17 am

1-The pituitary gland is below the ________.
a. pineal gland
b. hypothalamus
c. thalamus
d. pons

2-Which of the following is not a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland:
a. growth hormone
b. prolactin
c. leutinizing hormone
d. oxytoxin

3-Which is not a function of oxytoxin:
a. cause morning sickness
b. helps contract uterus smooth muscle
c. secrete milk after birth
d. function increases closer to time of birth

4-Which section communicates largely with the hypothalamus:
a. anterior
b. superior
c. posterior
d. inferior

5-Which gland is not caused to function by the anterior pituitary gland:
a. adrenal
b. ovaric
c. bladder
d. thyroid
1.
6-Which hormone only functions in women?
a. prolactin
b. thyroid-stimulating hormone
c. endorphins
d. luteinizing hormone

7-What is another name for the anterior pituitary gland?
a. actodenysis
b. adenocorticotropic
c. adenohypophysis
d. hypothalamus


8-Where is the pituitary gland located?
a. base of the brain stem
b. beneath the hypothalamus
c. in the inner ear
d. the center of the cerebrum

9-What happens if there is an underfunction of the anterior pituitary gland?
a. giantism
b. hydrocephalis
c. death
d. dwarfism and decrease of activity in other glands

10-What does Luteinizing Hormone do in men and women?
a. men – supports sperm production, women – promotes egg development
b. men – promotes lutein production, women – promotes lutein production
c. men – stimulates interstitial cells of testes to produce sex hormones,
women – induces ovulation, promotes the ovarian secretion of estrogens and progestins, prepares the body for pregnancy
d. men – promotes melanin production, women – promotes melanin production

11-The Pituitary Gland is the size of a:
a. Pea
b. cantaloupe
c. grape
d. kiwi

12-The Anterior Pituitary Gland is composed mostly of cells that secrete…
a. calcium
b. hypophyseal hormones
c. protein hormones
d. trophic hormones

13-What has the biggest effect on the hormones of the pituitary gland?
a. Pregnancy
b. puberty
c. fetal development
d. drug use

14-The effects of pituitary underfunction include a decrease in endocrine gland functions and…
a. fatigue
b. mood swings
c. elephantitis
d. dwarfism

15-The release of the seven hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland are controlled by which gland?
a. Adrenal
b. Hypothalamic
c. Thyroid
d. Posterior Pituitary

16-Where is the Anterior Pituitary Gland located?
a. Between the lungs.
b. In the sella turcica at the base of the brain.
c. In the pancreatic islets.
d. On the gonads.

17-All of the following are general functions of the Pituitary Gland EXCEPT:
a. Growth
b. Breast Milk Production
c. Hair growth
d. Thyroid Function

18-The Hormone secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland that stimulates the mammary glads to produce milk is the:
a. Luteinizing Hormone
b. Growth Hormone
c. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
d. Prolactin

19-Where does the Anterior Pituitary Gland receive releasing hormones from?
a. the hypothalamus
b. the medulla
c. Broca’s area
d. the thymus

20-The Growth Hormone…
a. stimulates growth and cell reproduction in only humans.
b. stimulates growth and cell reproduction in only humans and other vertebrate animals.
c. is only secreted during the sleep hours of the circadian rhythm.
d. none of the above.

21-The general function of the posterior pituitary gland is to:
a. stimulate bone growth
b. store and later release hormones
c. control movement of the iris
d. help to produce calcium

22-All of the following affect the level of Antidiuretic hormone except:
a. dehydration
b. nicotine
c. alcohol
d. sugar

23-The basic function of Oxytocin is to:
a. stimulate contraction of smooth muscle during birth and feeding
b. stimulate restriction of blood flow to the brain during sleep
c. inhibit the production of sweat during extreme temperatures
d. inhibit the production of saliva

24-The two hormones produced by the cell bodies of the secretory neurons for the posterior pituitary gland are:
a. Oxytocin and Adrenaline
b. Oxytocin and Antidiuretic hormone
c. Adrenaline and Antidiphoretic hormone
d. Adrenaline and Estrogen

25-Dehydration is:
a. loss of blood due to hemorrhaging
b. an excessive amount of H2O in the blood
c. the process of perspiration
d. low water concentration in the blood
26-The pituitary gland is located in the _________.
a. Digestive tract
b. Ovaries
c. Heart
d. Brain
27-How many hormones does the posterior pituitary gland secrete?
a. 2
b. 6
c. 9
d. 1
28-What hormones does the pituitary gland secrete?
a. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
b. Numerous hormones
c. Oxytocin, and Antidiuretic hormone
d. Testosterone, Estrogen, and Progestin

29-Which hormone is inhibited by Alcohol?
a. Testosterone
b. Oxytocin
c. ADH
d. Epinephrine
30-What is the Pituitary gland sometimes referred as?
a. The Weak gland
b. The Secondary gland
c. The Imaginary gland
d. The Master gland
31-Which of the following is NOT a function of melatonin?
a. Inhibits reproduction functions
b. Protects against sunlight
c. Protects against damage from free radicals
d. Sets Circadian Rhythms

32-Where is the Pineal Gland located?
a. Roof of the thalamus
b. Posterior portion of the roof of the third ventricle
c. A and B
d. None of the above

33-Which of the following is NOT contained in the pineal gland?
a. Neurons
b. Keratin
c. Neuroglia
d. Pinealocytes

34-Melatonin production is:
a. Highest during daylight hours and lowest at night
b. Always constant
c. Lowest during daylight hours and highest at night
d. Not produced in the pineal gland

35-Melatonin reduces the maturation rate of sperm/occytes by reducing the rate of what secretion?
a. Pinealocytes
b. GnRH
c. PnGH
d. None of the above


36- When is the majority of melatonin secreted?
a. The afternoon
b. Summer
c. Evening
d. Night

37- The pineal gland is roughly the size of:
a. A Cow
b. A Pea
c. A Walnut
d. A Green Bean

38- The pineal gland most likely would affect:
a. Jet Lag
b. Hunger
c. Emotion
d. Pain

39- Which is not a general function of the pineal gland?
a. Biorhythms
b. Disease prevention
c. Sexual desire
d. Skin pigmentation

40- Where is the pineal gland located?
a. Cerebrum
b. Cerebellum
c. Hypothalamus
d. Thalamus

41-The Adrenal Glands are located above what?
a. Bladder
b. Lungs
c. Kidney

42-The Adrenal Cortex produces what three main Hormones?
a. Corticosteroids, Aldosterone and Androgenic
b. White Blood cells, Ach, and Bone Marrow.
c. Glycogen, Cholinestrase, Calcium

43-What 2 hormones are created in the adrenal medulla?
a. Glucocorticoids and aldosterone
b. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
c.Testosterone and estrogen


44-Which part of the Adrenal gland sends epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to stressful situations?

a. Adrenal Cortex
b. Medula oblongota
c. Adrenal Medula

45-Epinephrine release causes what changes in the body to occur:

a. Increase White Blood cell production
b. Increase heart rate and force of contractions
c. Lowers the amount of impulses sent to CNS

46-Where is the Adrenal gland located?
a. On the top side of both kidneys
b. At the base of the brain
c. Just medial of the heart
d. On the bottom of the lungs

47-What are the two parts of the adrenal gland?
a. Inferior and Superior Adrenal Renins
b. Cortex and Medulla
c. Borealit and Junctor
d. Antero-lateral and Antero-medial Cruciates

48-Generally, what do the hormones secreted by the Adrenal gland affect?
a. The rate at which dead cells decompose
b. The rate of metabolism in many cells
c. The size of dilation the pupils
d. The speed of nerve impulse

49-Which of these is not a function/effect of Epinephrine (Adrenaline)?
a. Increased cardiac activity
b. Control of glycogen breakdown
c. Release of lipids by adipose tissue
d. Controls the nerve impulse

50-What other Gland produces the same androgens as the adrenal gland?
a. The pituitary gland
b. The Thymus
c. The Testis
d. The Pineal Gland





51-Where is the adrenal gland located?
a. Kidney
b. Pancreas
c. Liver
d. Throat

52-There are two parts to the adrenal glands, which parts are they?
a. Medulla oblongata and mid brain
b. Superficial adrenal cortex and inner medulla cortex
c. Melenocytes and calcitnol
d. Antogen and immunoglobulin

53-What is a hormone produced by the Adrenal gland?
a. Glucose
b. Glycocorticoids
c. Inhibin
d. Somontomadins

54-What sex hormone does the Adrenal gland produce?
a. Mineralocorticoids
b. Norepinephrine
c. Androgens
d. Cortisone

55-What cells does the hormone epinephrine target?
a. Kidneys
b. Stomach
c. Most cells
d. None of the above

56-What kind of cells produce parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
a) chief cells
b) parathynotic cells
c) thyroid cells
d) C cells

57-What is the general function of the parathyroid gland?
a. Restores Calcium homeostasis by decreasing Calcium concentrations in body fluid
b. Restores Potassium homeostasis by decreasing Potassium concentrations in body fluid
c. Restores Potassium homeostasis by increasing Potassium concentrations in body fluid
d. Restores Calcium homeostasis by increasing Calcium concentrations in body fluid

58-What organs does parathyroid hormone mainly target?
a. bone and intestine
b. thyroid and liver
c. bone and kidney
d. thyroid and kidney

59-What specifically does parathyroid hormone do to maintain homeostasis?
a. stimulates osteoclasts
b. inhibits osteoblasts
c. reduces urinary excretion of Calcium
d. all of the above

60-What is the disease where one of four parathyroid glands becomes an enlarged, benign tumor, producing too much Calcium to maintain good homeostasis?
a. hypoparathyroidism
b. hyperparathyroidism
c. parathyroid cancer
d. basophilism

61-What is the normal range of calcium in the blood?
a. 5 -10mg/dl
b. 1.5 - 4mg/dl
c. 8.5- 11mg/dl
d. 7-15.5mg/dl

62-The parathyroid gland produces parathyroid .
a. calcium
b. hormone
c. blood
d. substance

63-The parathyroid gland is located to the thyroid gland.
a. anterior
b. lateral
c. superior
d. posterior

64- is the condition where there is increased calcium in the blood.
a. Hypoparathyriodism
b. Hyperparathyriodism
c. Cretinism
d. Pituitary Dwarfism




65-The parathyroid hormone release into the bloodstream.
a. calcium
b. adrenaline
c. peptides
d. hormones
66-What is the general function of the parathyroid gland?
a. Mature t-cells for immune system
b. Maintains iron levels in blood
c. Maintains the concentration of calcium ions in blood
d. Increase levels of calcium in bones
67-Which of the following is a process of the parathyroid gland?
a. Monitor blood circulation
b. Mobilization of calcium from bone
c. Enriches blood in muscle fibers
d. Controls body fat
68-What do phosphate ions have to do with the parathyroid gland?
a. As phosphate ions increase calcium levels increase
b. Phosphate ions decrease so calcium ions increase
c. Phosphate ions must be equal to calcium ions
d. Calcium ions decrease so phosphate ions increase
69-Where are the parathyroid glands located?
a. Above the heart
b. In the base of the brain
c. Next to the kidneys
d. In the neck
70-What causes violent muscle spasms concerning the parathyroid gland?
a. Excess secretion of parathormone
b. Under secretion of parathormone
c. Phosphate ions and calcium ions are unbalanced
d. Calcium levels in bones are too high
71-The parathyroid is responsible for controlling ________________ in the blood stream.
a. oxygen level
b. calcium level
c. water level
d. phosphorous level
72-The parathyroid hormone is made up of _________ cells.

a. Parathyroid
b. Gland
c. Tissue
d. Chief

73-What kind of hormone do the parathyroids make?

a. Parathyroid
b. Calcium
c. Serotinin
d. Adrenaline

74-What endocrine gland is four separate small glands in the neck?

a. Thyroid
b. Thalamus
c. Parathyroid
d. Hypothalamus

75-The parathyroid creates PTH when calcium levels are too _____?

a. Low
b. High
c. Equal
d. Slow

76-Where is the Thymus Gland located?
a. In the midbrain
b. In the abdomen
c. In the chest, behind the sternum
d. By the brainstem

77-What is the Thymus Gland a maturation site for?
a. B cells
b. T cells
c. NK cells
d. Z cells

78-What hormone does the Thymus Gland secrete?
a. Thymosin
b. Thyroxine
c. Glucagons
d. Melatonin

79-After what age does the Thymus Gland atrophy (shrink)?
a. 2 years
b. 40 years
c. 20 years
d. puberty

80-What system is the Thymus Gland associated with?
a. Immune System
b. Circulatory System
c. Digestive System
d. Nervous System

81-Which hormone stimulates luteinizing hormone and gonadtropin releasing hormone?
a. thymosin
b. thymulin
c. THF
d. Thymopoietin

82- Where is the thymus located?
a. In the mediastinum
b. In the brain
c. Above the heart
d. Both a and c are correct

83-What is the main function of the thymus?
a. Stem cell differentiation
b. Lymphocyte division
c. The maturation of T-cells
d. All of the above

84-What does the thymus do?
a. Produce tears
b. Produce thymosins
c. Increases reabsorption
d. Increases cardiac activity

85-When does thymus reaches its maximum absolutely size
a) After puberty
b) Just before puberty
c) The first year or two after birth
d) Adulthood





86-What are hormonal effects of thymus?
a) Increases water and salt loss at kidneys
b) Coordinate digestive activities
c) Coordinate and regulate immune response
d) Stimulate red blood cells production

87-Which hormone do the alpha cells of pancreas produce?
a. Insulin
b. Adrenaline
c. Glucogen
d. Pancreatic amino acid

88-The release of insulin from the beta cells stimulates what response?
a. Oxygenates the red blood cells
b. Glucose transportation into target cells
c. Immobilizes the transportation of glucose
d. Stops the breaking down of amino acids

89-The pancreas is located between the…
a. Livers and small intestine
b. Kidney and large intestine
c. Stomach and liver
d. Small intestine and stomach

90-What types of tissue does the pancreas contain?
a. Endocrine tissue
b. Exocrine tissue
c. Nodular tissue
d. Both a and b

91-Which illness is greatly related to the pancreas?
a. Osteoporosis
b. Diabetes
c. Parkinson’s Disease
d. Rigor Mortis

92-What are the three major cells in the Pancreas?
a. Gamma, delta, alpha
b. Alpha, beta, delta
c. Delta, sigma, alpha

93-Where is the pancreas located?
a. First part of the large intestines right after the stomach
b. First part of the small intestines right after the small intestines


94-What does glucagon do?
a. Assists in digestion within the stomach
b. Helps central water secretion and absorption from the intestines
c Assist insulin in regulating blood glucose (sugar) in hormonal range

95-Where are the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas?
a. Exocrine areas
b. Secretion areas
c. Endocrine areas

96-What do alpha cells produce?
a. Glucagon
b. Gastrin
c. Vasoactive-Intestinal Peptide

97-What is the main hormone secreted from the testicles?
a. Estrogen
b. Testosterone
c. Adrenalin
d. Amphilions

98-What does the ovaries produce?
a. Estrogen
b. Testosterone
c. Adrenalin
d. Amphilions

99-Where are the testicles located?
a. behind the knee
b. near the stomach
c. in the scrotum

100-Which of these does testosterone NOT do?
a. Maturation of sperm cells.
b. Male secondary characteristics
c. Inhibits FSH

101-Which of these proceses does estrogen actually do?
a. secondary sexual characteristics
b. stimulates heart rate
c. makes you stop growing

102-What Is Inhibin?
a. Inhibits FSH
b. Sexual hormone
c. Steroids
103-Is inhibin present in males and females?

a. Yes
b. No
c. Sometimes

104- Where is the location of the overies and testes?
a. The Overies are located in the pelvic cavity. The testes are in the gallbladder.
b. The Overies are located in the scrotum. The testes are located in the pelvic area.
c. The overies are located in the pelvic cavity. The testes are located in the scrotum.

105-What hormones are secreated by the testes?
a. Estrogen and Testosterone
b. Progesterone and Testosterone
c. Testasterone and Inhibin

106-What hormones are secreated by the overies?
a. Estrogen, Progesterone, and Relaxin
b. Inhibin
c. Testasterone and Estrogen
d. Both A and B

107-Which hormone released by he overies relaxes the pubic symphysin and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy?
a. Estrogen
b. Inhibin
c. Progesterone
d. Relaxin

108-What hormone does the overies and the Testes both produce?
a. Inhibin
b. Progesteron
c. Testosterone

109-What are the two main hormones secreted by the ovaries?
a. Estrogen and Progesterone
b. Testosterone and Estrogen
c. Progesterone and Testosterone

110-What is Progesterone supposed to balance out?
a. Testosterone
b. Insulin
c. Estrogen



111-Which effect is NOT caused by the hormone Progesterone?
a. Increases libido at time of ovulation
b. Causes anxiety
c. Normalizes blood clotting

112- Testosterone increases________ and _________growth in the body?
a. Skeletal and Muscular
b. Muscular and nervous
c. Nervous and skeletal

113-What is the general function of the testes?
a. Growth and reproduction
b. Reproduction and mind
c. Growth and FSH

114-What doses FSH stand for?
a. Follicle Stimulating Hormone
b. First Step Hormone
c. Fish Standing High

115-Where is the thyroid gland located?
a. Behind the stomach
b. In front of the neck
c. On the occipital lobe
d. Above the kidneys

116-What does Calcitonin affect?
a. The kidneys
b. Bones
c. The Nervous system
d. A and B are correct
e. All of the above

117-How many hormones does the thyroid gland secrete?
a. seven
b. two
c. three
d. one

118-What is Thyroxin also known as?
a. Triiodothyronine
b. Tetraiodothyronine
c. T4
d. B and C are correct
e. All of the above

119-What does Calcitonin cause?
a. A decrease in bone density
b. An increase in bone density
c. A decrease in calcium concentrations
d. An increase in calcium concentrations

120-The hormones of the thyroid control…..
a. metabolism
b. growth
c. development
d. all of the above

121-The thyroid gland produces how much T4?
a. 20%
b. 65%
c. 80%

122-What is the thyroid called when it is enlarged with no cancer or inflammation?
a. goiter
b. enlarged thyroid
c. none of the above

123-What cells are the only ones that can absorb iodine?
a. red blood cells
b. white blood cells
c. thyroid cells
d. all of the above

124-Which one is NOT a symptom of hypothyroidism?
a. fatigue
b. weight gain
c. feeling cold
d. shaking

125-Which one is NOT a symptom of hyperthyroidism?
a. feeling hot
b. weight loss
c. shaking
d. constipation

126-Which hormone causes a decrease in the calcium concentration in the blood?
a. thyroxine
b. Calcitonin
c. Triiodothyronine
d. All of the above

127-Which hormone speeds up the body’s metabolism?
a. Triiodothyronine
b. Calcitonin
c. Thyroxine
d. All of the Above

128-Where is the thyroid located?
a. lower neck
b. below Larynx
c. just above the Clavicle
d. All of the above



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عدل سابقا من قبل Admin في الثلاثاء ديسمبر 20, 2011 6:22 pm عدل 2 مرات
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Multiple choice questions (128 questions) with their answers on endocrine and reproductive physiology    الجمعة ديسمبر 03, 2010 8:24 am

Answer

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Multiple choice questions (128 questions) with their answers on endocrine and reproductive physiology
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