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 SEQs and answered MCQs on cardiovascular system physiology (3-2012) by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle

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مُساهمةموضوع: SEQs and answered MCQs on cardiovascular system physiology (3-2012) by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle    الأربعاء مارس 28, 2012 8:48 pm

SEQs:


1-Functions of atria include ………..
2-Action potential of ventricular muscle fiber ………..
3-Cardiac muscle cannot be tetanized due to …………..
4- Cardiac excitatory-conductive system…………….
5-Pacemaker potential ………………….
6-Excitation- contraction coupling of cardiac muscle …………….
7-Factors affecting cardiac contractility include …………….
8-The heart is innervated by ……………….
9- Cardiovascular centers include……………
10-Baroreceptors include …………….
11-Vasoconstrictor hormones include …………………..while, vasodilator hormones include ……………………..
12-ANP causes……………..
13-Actions of angiotensin II include …………………
14-Define: SV, EDV, ESV, CO (minute volume), CI (cardiac index), cardiac reserve and ejection fraction?
15-Factors affecting CO…………………
16-Autoregulation of CO………….
17-MSFP ………………….
18-Exercise increases CO through …………….
19-Sytolic blood pressure is …………………………….
20- Short term regulation of ABP…………………
21-Actions of angiotensin II include………………….
22-Effect of exercise and respiration on ABP………………..
23-Factors that determine ABP include ……………………
24-Intermediate regulation of ABP………………..
25-Increased right atrial pressure causes …………………………
26-HR is ………………
27-Resting HR is decreased in athletes due to ……………….
28-HR is increased during inspiration due to ………………………….
29-Thyroxin increases HR through ………………..
30-Exposure to cold weather causes tachycardia due to ……………..
31-Phases of ventricular diastole are…………………………………………..
32-Duration of atrial diastole is………..
33-Ventricular diastole is important due to ………….
34-Isometric contraction phase …………..
35-Isometric relaxation phase …………..
36-Interrelation between ECG and cardiac cycle ……………
37-Types and causes of heart sounds ………….
38-Interrelation of heart sounds to cardiac cycle………….
39-Aortic pressure changes during cardiac cycle…………..
40-Atrial pressure changes during cardiac cycle …………..
41-Types of cardiac work include……………..
42-Aortic regurge …………..ME while aortic stenosis ……………..ME.
43-Mechanisms of cardiac reserve ……………..
44- Einthoven's triangle is characterized by …………………………
45-T wave is positive in V6 due to …………………………………
46-QRS complex represents …………………………………
47-P-R interval is prolonged by………………………………
48-ECG changes in coronary insufficiency………………………………
49-Acute muscular exercise increases heart rate through…………….
50-Trained person has a resting bradycardia due to ……………..
51-Anrep’s reflex ……………………………..
52-Cutaneous blood flow increases during exercise despite a generalized increase in sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone because ………………….
53- Mechanisms and limitations of cardiac reserve include……………
54- Factors that increase end diastolic volume include………………
55-Normal fetal circulation ………………….
56-Changes in fetal circulation after birth include ………………….
57- Describe the location and function of the following fetal structures:
a) foramen ovale?
b) ductus arteriosus?
c) umbilical artery?
d) umbilical vein?
e) ductus venosus?




MCQs:


1- One of the characteristics of cardiac muscle is that it has excitability. Which of the following best describes this characteristic?
a- contracts when stimulated.
b- has local electrical charges that move along the muscle fiber.
c- only pull; they cannot push.
d- can stretch when needed.
e- none of the above.


2-The heart valves………….
a- contract to pump blood through the heart.
b- separate the left and right sides of the heart.
c- prevent blood from flowing backward through the heart.
d- cause the heart sound when they open.
e- both c and d.


3-Which of the following parts of the cardiac conduction system is correctly matched with its location?
a- AV bundle (bundle of His) - upper part of interatrial septum.
b- AV node - left atrium in the inferior interventricular septum.
c- Purkinje fibers - epicardium of the ventricles.
d- SA node - right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava.
e- None of the above.


4- The cells of the heart's normal pacemaker……………………….
a- spontaneously generate electrical signals about 90 to 110 times per minute.
b- are located in the interventricular septum.
c- generate electrical signals only when stimulated by sympathetic fibers.
d- are not in contact with other cells of the heart.
e- have plateau in their action potential.

5-Low pressure baroreceptors are present in:
a-right atrium.
b-dorsalis pedis artery.
c-femoral artery.
d-carotid sinus.
e-popliteal artery.

6-Stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors due to a change in blood pressure first results in:
a-changes in parasympathetic centers within the heart.
b-increases in heart rate.
c-stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center in the adrenal medulla.
d-changes in sympathetic centers within the heart.
e-stimulation of the vasomotor center resulting in vasoconstriction or vasodilation.

7-Vasodilator hormones include:
a-ADH.
b-ANP.
c-Angiotensin II.
d-Endothelin.
e-Noradrenaline.

8-Angiotensin II causes:
a-decrease in blood volume.
b-decrease in blood pressure.
c-vasodilatation.
d-salt and water retention.
e-natriuresis.

9-Which of the following is (are) true about the cardiac output in a resting, average adult human?
a- it is the amount of blood delivered by one of the heart’s ventricles in one minute.
b- it is approximately 5 liters per min.
c- it is equal to HR X SV.
d- it is the amount of blood delivered by both left and right ventricles in one minute.
e- a, b and c.


10-Volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole is ……….
a- preload.
b- afterload.
c- ESV.
d- cardiac index.
e- cardiac reserve.


11-MSFP is normally …………….mmHg.
a- 0
b- 20
c- 7
d- 18
e- 25


12-The amount of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat is called…………
a-cardiac output.
b-end diastolic volume.
c-cardiac index.
d- stroke volume.
e-cardiac reserve.


13-Factors increasing venous return include all of the following except……
a-increase sympathetic activity.
b-respiratory pump effect.
c-cardiac pump effect.
d-skeletal muscle pump effect.
e-decrease blood volume.


14-Cardiac output is increased in all of the following conditions except……..
a-anemia.
b-exercise.
c-myocardial infarction.
d-hyperthyroidism.
e-sympathetic stimulation.

15-Arterial blood pressure…………………….
a- is equal to CO x SV.
b- in Orientals is less than that in Europeans.
c- decreases after meals.
d- is equal to CO x HR.
e- is equal to EDV - ESV.

16-Short-term mechanisms regulating ABP include:
a-stress relaxation.
b-Arterial chemoreflexes.
c-capillary shift mechanism.
d- renin-angiotensin system.
e-all of the above.


17-Renin is secreted by…………..
a-liver cells.
b-juxtaglomeular cells.
c-lacis cells.
d- macula densa cells..
e-heart cells.

18-ADH secretion is not stimulated by…………..
a-atrial volume receptors.
b-hypovolemia.
c-hyperosmolality.
d-atrial natriuretic peptide.
e-angiotensin II.

19-Low pressure baroreceptors are present in……….
a-carotid body.
b-right atrium.
c-aortic arch.
d- carotid sinus.
e-left ventricle.

20-In ECG, the R – R intervals are equal in lead II and each of which is 15 small squares. Which of the following represents HR in this case?
a-120 beat / min.
b-110 beat / min.
c-90 beat / min.
d-100 beat / min.
e-150 beat / min.


21-Which of the following reflexes is defined as reflex tachycardia in response to increased right atrial pressure?
a- Bezold-Jarisch reflex.
b- Herring-Breuer reflex.
c- Anrep's reflex.
d- Loven's reflex.
e- Bainbridge reflex.

22-The duration of ventricular systole is …………
a-0.1 sec.
b-0.2 sec.
c-0.3 sec.
d-0.4 sec.
e-0.5 sec.

23-All cardiac valves are closed during:
a-isometric contraction phase.
b-rapid ejection phase.
c-rapid filling phase.
d-reduced filling phase.
e- atrial systole.

24- The 3rd heart sound occurs during:
a-isometric contraction phase.
b-rapid ejection phase.
c-rapid filling phase.
d-reduced filling phase.
e-atrial systole.


25- True or false:
a) 1st heart sound occurs due to rushing of blood into the ventricles.
b) In isometric relaxation phase, all cardiac valves are closed.
c) 3rd heart sound occurs during rapid ventricular filling phase.
d) Semilunar valves are opened during atrial systole.

26- "a" wave in jugular venous pulse occurs during ………….
a-isometric contraction phase.
b-rapid ejection phase.
c-rapid filling phase.
d-reduced filling phase.
e- atrial systole.

27-During isometric contraction phase……………………..
a-ME is 20%.
b-All cardiac valves are opened.
c-2nd heart sound occurs.
d-"c" wave is recorded in venous pulse curve.
e-"p" wave is recorded in ECG.

28-If HR = 60 beat/min, SV = 60 ml and MAP = 90 mmHg, the cardiac work will be calculated as following………..
a-60 x 60/90.
b-60 x 60 x 90.
c-60 x 90/60.
d-(60 + 60) x 90.
e-(60 + 60)/90.

29-aVR is about ……… VR.
a-0.5
b-2.5
c-1.5
d-5
e-6

30-Atrial depolarization:
a-is represented by R wave.
b- precedes atrial systole by 0.02 sec.
c-1st part to be depolarized is the last part to be repolarized.
d-starts at AV node.
e-is not recorded normally in ECG.


31-T wave duration is ……………sec.
a-0.5
b-0.05
c-0.1
d-0.25
e-0.6

32-Spike T wave occurs in……………..
a-hyponatremia.
b-hypocalcemia.
c-hyperkalemia.
d-myocardial infarction.
e-bundle branch block.

33-Which of the following is false regarding effects of muscular exercise?
a- It increases heart rate.
b- It increases sympathetic function.
c- It increases arterial blood pressure.
d- It increases cardiac output.
e- It increases end systolic volume.


34-Which of the following is a systemic vasoconstrictor substance?
a-ATP.
b-Adenosine.
c-Noradrenaline.
d-Histamine.
e-NO.


35-…………….is a reflex tachycardia due to afferent impulses from active skeletal muscles and joints proprioceptors.
a-Bezold-Jarisch reflex
b-Bainbridge reflex
c-Anrep's reflex
d- Alam-Smirk reflex
e- Loven’s reflex

36-Which of the following structures is a unique structure in fetal circulation?
a-common carotid.
b-ductus arteriosus.
c-aortic sinus.
d-superior vena cava.
e-pulmonary artery.


37-Oxygen saturation in umbilical arteries is ………….
a-40%.
b-50%.
c-60%.
d-70%.
e-80%.







Answers



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SEQs and answered MCQs on cardiovascular system physiology (3-2012) by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle
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