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 SEQs and answered MCQs on autonomic NS, CNS and special senses (2012) by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle

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مُساهمةموضوع: SEQs and answered MCQs on autonomic NS, CNS and special senses (2012) by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle    الجمعة مارس 09, 2012 1:43 pm

SEQs:



1-Autonomic supply to the thorax causes…………………………………
2-Suprarenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglion because……………..
3-Nervi eregentis (pelvic nerve) stimulation causes…………………..
4-Levels of controlling autonomic nervous system include………..
5-Autonmic supply of salivary glands cause………………………………
6-Auditory cortex………………
7- Perforation in the tympanic membrane causes……..
8-Auditory pathway …………
9-Types of deafness include ……………….
10-Cerebellar connections through the inferior cerebellar peduncle ………………….
11- Functions of cerebellum include ……………………..
12-Role of cerebellum in controlling of voluntary movement ………………….
13- Servo-comparator function of cerebellum………………………..
14-Motor (cerebellar) ataxia is manifested by ……………………
15-Define: EEG, alpha block and sleep?
16-Describe waves of EEG?
17-Discuss types of sleep?
18-Mention sleep disorders?
19-Enumerate possible mechanisms of sleep?
20-Narcolepsy means……………..
21-Passive is different from active theory of sleep in ……………………..
22-importance of EEG includes …………………………………..
23-Speech centers ……………………
24-Types of aphasia ……………………..
25-Classify memory ………………………
26-Memory consolidation …………………………..
27-Types of learning ………………….
28-Synaptic plasticity ……………..
29- Sound properties include ………….
30- Zero dB means……………..
31-Methods of sound transmission into the inner ear ………
32-Transduction in cochlea………….
33-Function of middle ear ……………
34-Sound discrimination ……………….
35-Possible mechanism of hearing……..
36-Endocochlear potential……………….
37-On entering the eye light is refracted at…………………….
38-Exposure of photoreceptors to light causes………….
39-Rods are different from cones in …………
40-Photoreceptor potential ……………….
41-Types of pain nerve fibers ………………..
42-Pain pathways ……………..
43-Types of pain ………………….
44-Referred pain ………………………….
45-Reactions to pain………………
46-Hyperalgesia ………………….
47-Pain control system ……………….
48-Pathways for proprioception ……………..
49-Pathways for touch sensation ……………….
50-Spinothalamic tract …………………
51-Dorsal column system ………………………..
52-Types of pyramidal tracts ……………….
53-Pyramidal tract functions include ………………………….
54-Lesion in pyramidal tracts causes ………………….
55-Functions of extrapyramidal tracts include …………………
56-Lesion in extrapyramidal tracts causes ………………..
57-Enumerate functions of spinal cord?
58-Define reflex and describe the reflex arc?
59-Classify reflexes?
60-Outline protective withdrawal and crossed extensor reflexes?
61-Define spinal animal?
62-Discuss cause, duration and manifestations of spinal shock?
63-Stretch reflex is ……………………..and stimulated by …………..
64- Muscle tone is …………………..
65-Functions of stretch reflex include …………………
66-Types of stretch reflex are ……………..
67-Pendular knee jerk means …………… and it occurs in ……………….
68-Inverse stretch reflex ……………………
69-Electerical synapses are different from chemical synapses in ……………..
70- Mechanism of nerve impulse transmission at the chemical synapse…………….
71- Types of synaptic potentials include …………………….
72-EPSP is ……………….
73-Inhibition in CNS includes ……………………………….
74-Properties of synaptic transmission include ………………..
75-Define UMN, LMN, monoplegia, paraplegia, hemiplegia and quadriplegia?
76-UMNL is manifested by …………………
77-LMNL is manifested by ………………….
78-Reactions of degeneration include …………………..
79-Systems involved in equilibrium include ………………
80-Types of equilibrium include …………….
81-Mechanism of static equilibrium ………………….
82-Mechanism of angular acceleration ………………….
83-Vestibulo-ocular reflex…………………
84-Vestibular damage causes……………
85-Primary colors are…………
86-Perimetry is used for………..
87-Visual pathway ………………..
88-Pupillary light reflex ……………
89-Near response ………….
90-Corneal reflex …………
91- Argyll-Robertson pupil …………………….
92- Horner’s syndrome is manifested by…………………………….
93- Vestibulo-ocular reflex …………..
94-Functions of the basal ganglia include……………………
95-Major manifestations of Parkinsonism include……………
96-Types of tremors include…………..
97-Abnormal gaits include………………




MCQs:



1-Autonomic ganglion:
a- is distributed along somatic nerves.
b-is a collection of nerve cells and fibers inside CNS.
c- acts as a distribution center.
d- contains mainly nor adrenaline as a chemical transmitter.
e-never to be a site of drug action.


2-Horner’s syndrome is manifested ipsilaterally by all of the following except:
a- ptosis.
b-exophthamosis.
c-miosis.
d-anhydrosis.
e-redness of the face.


3-Cranial part of parasympathetic nervous system is present in………cranial nerve.
a- 4th.
b-1st.
c-3rd.
d- 11th.
e- 12th.


4-Which of the statements are true for the autonomic nervous system?
a- neuron cell bodies in the nuclei of cranial nerves.
b- neuron cell bodies in the lateral gray matter of the spinal cord (S2-S4).
c- two synapses between the CNS and effector organs.
d- regulates smooth muscle.
e- all of the above.


5- The cell bodies of the postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division are located in the………..
a- sympathetic chain ganglia.
b- collateral ganglia.
c- terminal ganglia.
d- dorsal root ganglia.
e- both a and b.


6- Splanchnic nerves…………
a- are part of the parasympathetic division.
b- have preganglionic neurons that synapse in the collateral ganglia.
c- exit from the cervical region of the spinal cord.
d- travel from the spinal cord to the sympathetic chain ganglia.
e- supply constrictor pupillae muscle.


7- Which of these is expected if the sympathetic division is activated?
a- Secretion of watery saliva increases.
b- Tear production increases.
c- Airway passages dilate.
d- Glucose release from the liver decreases.
e- Increased GIT motility.


8- The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ………………….
a- otic ganglion.
b- inferior mesenteric ganglion.
c- submandibular ganglion.
d- ciliary ganglion.
e- pterygopalatine ganglion.


9- Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the …………………
a- medulla.
b- cerebellum.
c- hypothalamus.
d- thalamus.
e- limbic system.


10- The parasympathetic fibers of the ……………. nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.
a- optic
b- oculomotor
c- trochlear
d- abducens
e- olfactory


11- Erection of the penis or clitoris…………
a- is primarily under sympathetic control.
b- is primarily under parasympathetic control.
c- is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input.
d- depends very little on autonomic activation.
e- none of the above.


12-Auditory pathway forms……
a-spinal lemniscus.
b-lateral lemniscus.
c-medial lemniscus.
d-trigeminal lemniscus.
e-none of the above.


13-Secondary auditory area is….
a-area 42.
b-area 24.
c-area 41.
d-area 22.
e-area 37.


14-In conductive deafness………..
a-air conduction is better than bone conduction.
b-positive Rinne test.
c-weber lateralizes to affected side.
d-hair cells are mainly affected.
e-both b and d are true.


15- The primary purpose of the cerebellum is thought to be………….
a- Interpretation of conscious sensation.
b- Initiation of motion.
c-Control of involuntary movement.
d- Coordination.
e-Center of emotions.


16- Which cerebellar peduncle (s) is (are) thought to serve afferent functions only?
a- Superior cerebellar peduncle.
b- Middle cerebellar peduncle.
c- Inferior cerebellar peduncle.
d- Both a and c.
e-Both b and c.


17-Motor ataxia is manifested by all of the following except…………….
a- dysmetria.
b- monotonus speech.
c- dysdiadokokinesia.
d- rebound phenomenon.
e-decomposition of movement.


18-Hypertonia occurs in cases of lesion of ……………
a- neocerebellum.
b- archicerebellum.
c- paleocerebellum.
d- caudate nucleus.
e-area 4.



19- ………………….. is the inability to perform rapidly alternate opposite successive movement.
a- dysmetria.
b- monotonus speech.
c- dysdiadokokinesia.
d- rebound phenomenon.
e-decomposition of movement.


20- Adult persons need ……. hours of sleep every 24 hours.
a-3
b-12
c-8
d-16
e-18


21- Sleep deprivation can cause………………….
a-irritability.
b-loss of concentration.
c-nervousness.
d-disturbed hormonal secretion.
e-all of the above.


22- In adults during complete rest with closed eyes, the normal EEG wave recorded is…..
a-delta.
b-beta.
c-theta.
d-alpha.
e-none of the above.


23- Somnambulism means………..
a-insomnia.
b-hypersomnia.
c-bed wetting.
d-sleep walking.
e-snoring.


24-Auditory aphasia occurs mostly due to lesion in ………….
a- area 35.
b- area 8.
c- area 42.
d- area 18.
e- area 22.


25-True or false:
a. Wernick's area is present mainly in hand region in the premotor area (area 6).
b. None associative learning is an example of accommodation reflex
c. Habituation is an example of none associative learning.
d. Brain concussion can cause retrograde amnesia.
e. Word blindness occurs in lesions of auditory association area.
f. Transformation of short to long term memory is called memory consolidation.
g. Alzheimer early affects long term memory.


26- Concerning sound frequency, the audible spectrum is between:
a-0-1000 HZ.
b-1000-10000 HZ.
c-20-20000 HZ.
d-500-50000 HZ.
e-10000-100000 HZ.


27-The middle ear magnifies sound pressure by about ………….times.
a- 32.
b- 22.
c-42.
d-52.
e-17.


28-Attenuation reflex is characterized by all of the following except……………..
a-Stimulated by excessively loud sound.
b-Protects the cochlea from damaging vibrations.
c-Stapedius and tensor palati muscles are incorporated in it.
d-Masks low-frequency sounds in loud environment.
e-Decreases the person`s sensitivity to his own voice.


29-Endocochlear potential is ………..millivolt.
a-(-80)
b-(+80)
c-(-150)
d-(+150)
e-(-110)


30-Fovea centralis:
a- contains rods only.
b- lies in the center of macula lutea.
c- is the blind spot.
c- is responsible for dim vision.
d- lies nasal to optic disc.


31-In comparison to cones, rods…..
a- are lesser in number.
b- are less sensitive to light.
c- are concentrated in fovea centralis.
d- are responsible for color vision.
e- contain rhodopsin.


32-Dark exposure causes release of ………..from photoreceptors.
a-glutamate.
b-adrenaline.
c-serotonin.
d-dopamine.
e-enkephalin.


33-Trasducin causes………….
a-depolarization of photoreceptors.
b-release of glutamate from photoreceptors.
c-increased sodium influx into outer segments of rods.
d-activation of phosphodiestrase enzyme.
e-opening of sodium leakage channels.


34-Dark adaptation…………..
a-is a rapid process.
b-depends mainly on cones.
c-decreases sensitivity to light.
d-shows regeneration of photopigments.
e-shows miosis.


35-The conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of responses by the nervous system is called……….., while making sense of that information is known as ……………...
a. acquisition ... attribution.
b. sensation ... perception.
c. perception ... sensation.
d. assimilation ... accommodation.
e. attribution ... coordination.


36-The sensation of an itch is……..
a. inhibited by pain.
b. a specific type of pain.
c. a specific type of tickle.
d. not considered a true sensation because itch is actually imaginary.
e. not accompanied by the scratch reflex.


37-The itch sensation is a type of …………… sense.
a. auditory
b. olfactory
c. vestibular
d. cutaneous
e. visceral


38-What do cutaneous senses detect?
a. odors and tastes
b. pressure, warmth, cold, pain, and other stimuli on the skin
c. the position and acceleration of the head
d. sounds
e. vision.


39-Pain from skin over the hand is carried by ………..
a. ventral spinothalamic tract.
b. lateral spinothalamic tract.
c. cuneate tract.
d. gracile tract.
e. trigeminal pathway.


40- What is one way in which endorphins relieve pain?
a. They cause other neurons to release substance P faster than they can replace it.
b. They increase the flow of blood to the cerebral cortex.
c. They prevent sodium ions from crossing the axon membrane.
d. They inhibit the release of substance P from other neurons.
e. None of the above.


41- Our sense organs are packed with specialized cells called ………. that convert environmental energies into signals for the nervous system.
a. stimuli
b. adaptors
c. receivers
d. receptors
e. all of the above


42- Proprioceptors are involved in detecting………………
a- pain.
b- changes in blood pressure.
c- changes in tension in muscles and tendons.
d- changes in temperature in the skin.
e- crude touch.


43-Which of the following types of sensory nerve endings is involved in detecting changes in temperature?
a- Merkel's disks.
b- Pacinian's corpuscles.
c- Free nerve endings.
d- Ruffini's corpuscles.
e- None of the above.


44- The neuron of the spinothalamic system that ascends within the spinal cord and carries sensory information from a dorsal horn to the thalamus is designated as a……………………..
a- primary neuron.
b- secondary neuron.
c- tertiary neuron.
d- quaternary neuron.
e- none of the above.


45-Sensations carried by dorsal column system include………..
a- pain.
b- crude touch.
c- vibration.
d- temperature.
e- all of the above.
46-Which descending spinal tracts are the pathways concerned with voluntary, discrete, skilled movements, especially those of the distal parts of the limbs?
a-reticulospinal.
b-corticospinal.
c-vestibulospinal.
d-corticobulbar.
e-rubrospinal.


47-Which descending spinal tract is concerned with reflex postural movements in response to visual stimuli?
a-reticulospinal.
b-corticospinal.
c-tectospinal.
d-corticobulbar.
e-rubrospinal.


48- Which descending spinal tract is concerned with the postural activity associated with balance?
a-reticulospinal.
b-corticospinal.
c-tectospinal.
d-corticobulbar.
e-vestibulospinal.


49- ……………….. tract controls of respiration and heartbeat. Also, it facilitates muscles, inhibit antagonists involuntary.
a-reticulospinal.
b-corticospinal.
c-tectospinal.
d-corticobulbar.
e-vestibulospinal.


50-………….tract passes through the genu of the internal capsule.
a-reticulospinal.
b-corticospinal.
c-tectospinal.
d-corticobulbar.
e-vestibulospinal.


51-Which of the following reflexes inhibits skeletal muscle contraction?
a-crossed extensor reflex.
b-stretch reflex.
c-withdrawal reflex.
d-Golgi tendon reflex.
e-planter reflex.


52-Which of the following is NOT true about the stretch reflex?
a- It is a spinal reflex.
b- It is a visceral reflex.
c- It helps to maintain an upright posture.
d- It is a monosynaptic reflex.
e- It may involve conduction of nerve impulses from sensory neuron to interneuron to motor neuron.


53-Sami injured the quadriceps muscles in his legs due to increased tension and tearing while running around on the football field. What reflex failed to protect the muscles?
a- Golgi tendon reflex.
b- Flexor reflex.
c- Knee jerk reflex.
d- Stretch reflex.
e- Ankle reflex.


54- In the knee jerk reflex (patellar tendon reflex), the stimulus is:
a- contraction of the quadriceps muscles.
b- contraction of the hamstring muscles.
c- stretch of the quadriceps muscles.
d- stretch of the hamstring muscles.
e- extension of the leg.


55-Stretch reflex is stimulated by……………..
a- red nucleus.
b- lentiform nucleus.
c- area 4.
d- medullary reticular formation.
e- paleocerebellum.


56-Pendular knee jerk doesn't occur in…………….
a- lesion in medullary pyramid.
b- lentiform nucleus lesion.
c- area 4 lesion.
d- anterior quadrant lesion of spinal cord.
e- neocerebellar lesion.


57- An action potential arriving at the presynaptic terminal causes............
a- sodium ions to diffuse into the cell.
b- sodium ions to diffuse out of the cell.
c- calcium ions to diffuse into the cell.
d- acetylcholine to diffuse into the cell.
e- ligand-gated sodium channels to open.


58- In order for an impulse to be transmitted from one neuron to the next or from a neuron to its destination, a neurotransmitter must be released from ………………
a- within the soma.
b- the terminal end of the axon.
c- the terminal end of the dendrite.
d- all of the above.
e- none of the above.


59- What type of synapse is responsible for presynaptic inhibition?
a- Axodendritic.
b- Axosomatic.
c- Electrical synapse.
d- Axoaxonic.
e- None of the above.


60-EPSP occurs 2ry to……………
a- increase K+ efflux.
b- increase Cl- influx.
c- increase Na+ influx.
d- increase K+ influx.
e- increase Na+ efflux.


61-An area of skin innervated by sensory nerves is a …………..
a- dermal receptor.
b- ventral root.
c- dorsal root.
d- dermatome.
e- none of the above.


62-LMNL may cause…………….
a- quadriplegia.
b- paraplegia.
c- hemiplegia.
d- monoplegia.
e- none of the above.


63-Internal capsule lesion causes all of the following except……………
a- ankle clonus.
b- flaccid paralysis.
c- tonic neck reflexes.
d- hypertonia.
e- positive Babniski's sign.


64-Paralysis of right lower half of the face occurs in ……………
a- lesion in right corticonuclear tract.
b- lesion in left corticonuclear tract.
c- lesion in right corticobulbar tract.
d- lesion in left corticobulbar tract.
e- lesion in left tectospinal tract.


65-The receptor for static equilibrium is ……..
a-organ of corti.
b-crista.
c-rods.
d-macula.
e-free nerve endings.


66-Cross and circle experiment is used to determine……
a-blind spot.
b-peripheral visual field.
c-color blindness.
d-visual acuity.
e-deuteranopia.


67- Fibers of each optic tract synapse in the lateral geniculate nucleus of…….
a-hypothalamus.
b-thalamus.
c-limbic system.
d-hippocampus.
e-reticular formation.


68-All the following conditions cause miosis except……………….
a-Pupillary skin reflex.
b-Light reflex.
c-Horner’s syndrome.
d-Accommodation to near vision.
e-Parasympathetic stimulation.


69-The efferent of corneal reflex is present in ………………..…
a-optic nerve.
b-occulomotor nerve.
c-trigeminal nerve.
d-facial nerve.
e-trochlear nerve.


70-The center of light reflex is………………………..
a-lateral geniculate nucleus.
b-thalamus.
c-pretectal nucleus .
d-visual cortex.
e-calcarine fissure.


71-Convergence of both eyes in near response occurs by impulses from area……………
a-22.
b-41.
c-9 .
d-42.
e-8.


72-Sympathetic supply to the eye causes ……………..
a-miosis.
b-contraction of ciliary muscle.
c-relaxation of suspensory ligaments.
d-decrease in the dioptric power of the eye lens.
e-contraction of sphincter pupillae muscle.


73- Corpus striatum is:
a-caudate and globose nuclei.
b-caudate and substantia nigra.
c-caudate and red nuclei.
d-caudate and putamen nuclei.
e-caudate and globus pallidus.


74- Nigrostriate fibers are:
a-cholinergic.
b-adrenergic.
c-dopaminergic.
d-serotonergic.
e-GABAergic.


75-Caudate nucleus:
a-inhibitory to muscle tone.
b-its damage causes parkinsonism.
c-with globus pallidus forms lentiform nucleus.
d-is a part of basal ganglia.
e-is present in the cerebellum.





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SEQs and answered MCQs on autonomic NS, CNS and special senses (2012) by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle
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