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 Answered questions on Blood physiology by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle

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مُساهمةموضوع: Answered questions on Blood physiology by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle   الثلاثاء يناير 24, 2012 8:47 am

SEQs


Normal PH of the blood is ……………………

General blood functions include ………………………….

Homeostatic functions of blood include…………………..

Functions of RBCs include…………………

Blood group O (+ve) means …………………

Blood group AB is a universal recipient due to…………………

Functions of ABO system include ………………….

Importance of Rh system include …………………

Erythroblastosis fetalis is ………………

Steps of phagocytosis …………….

Eosinophilia occurs in ………………

Monocyte-macrophage system ……………………

Functions of lymphocytes include ……………

Types of T-lymphocytes include ………………….

Define plasma, serum, homeostasis, hemostasis and thrombosis?

Local vascular spasm after vascular injury is caused by…………………… and it is of value in ……………………….

Platelet contents include ……………………….

Platelet functions include ………………………………..

Interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic cascades of blood clotting ……………….

Clot retraction …………………………….

Fibrinolytic system ………………………..

Role of calcium in hemostasis ……………………………

Factors prevent intravascular clotting normally include ………………….



===============================================
MCQs


1- Erythrocyte is another name for …………….
a-white blood cells.
b-platelets.
c-monocytes.
d-red blood corpuscles.
e-macrophages.


2- Which of the following blood components provide the major defense for our bodies against invading bacteria and viruses?
a-white blood cells.
b-platelets.
c-target cells.
d-red blood corpuscles.
e-reticulocytes.


3- Most of the volume of normal human blood is composed of…………..
a-white blood cells.
b-platelets.
c-plasma.
d-red blood corpuscles.
e-reticulocytes.


4- Stoppage of bleeding is called……………
a- clumping.
b- vascular spasm.
c- thrombosis.
d- coagulation.
e- hemostasis.


5-Which statement concerning blood viscosity is incorrect?
a. The viscosity of blood is 4.5 to 5.5 higher than the viscosity of water.
b. Blood viscosity is due to the presence of the plasma proteins and erythrocytes.
c. The higher the blood viscosity the harder the heart has to work to move blood through the vessels.
d. Anemia increases blood viscosity.
e. Increase erythrocyte count increases blood viscosity.


6-Differences between plasma and serum include …………
a. plasma contains hemoglobin; serum does not.
b. serum is yellow; plasma has no color.
c. serum contains antibodies; plasma does not.
d. plasma contains clotting factor IV; serum does not.
e. plasma contains clotting proteins; serum does not


7- The benefit of the biconcave shape of red blood cells is that it……………
a. decreases the distance between the cell membrane and hemoglobin molecules, facilitating oxygen uptake.
b. allows the cells to hold less hemoglobin.
c. gives more room for the nucleus and organelles.
d. decreases surface area of cell membrane.
e. keeps Hb concentrated in center of RBCs.


8- Blood test results for an adult male are returned and the total red blood cell count is 2,500,000 cells per mm3. This person………………
a. has a normal total red blood cell count.
b. has an abnormally low total red blood cell count.
c. has an abnormally high total red blood cell count
d. shows that he has been exercising more than usual or has spent some time at high altitudes.
e. has polycythemia.


9- As red blood cells get older, they……………………..
a. are less likely to become damaged.
b. become more fragile.
c. are less likely to rupture.
d. are less likely to be phagocytized in the liver.
e. are less likely to be destroyed in the spleen.


10- Blood group…………..is considered as a universal donor for blood transfusion.
a-A.
b-B.
c-AB.
d-O.
e-None of the above.


11-ABO antibodies are…………
a-IgA.
b-IgG.
c-IgM.
d-IgE.
e-IgD.


12-An acute infection would show up in a blood count as…………………………
a-leukopenia.
b-too few helper T cells.
c-polycythemia.
d-leukocytosis.
e-thrombocytopenia.


13-Which one of the following indicates a normal white blood cell count?
a- 1 million per mm3.
b- 15,000 per cm3.
c- 10,000 per mm3.
d- 20,000 per mm3.
e- 3,000 per mm3.


14- Which cell is not phagocytic?
a- neutrophil.
b- monocyte.
c- macrophage.
d- eosinophil.
e- basophil.


15- Antibodies are defense substances produced by the ………………… cells.
a- neutrophil.
b- monocyte.
c- B-lymphocyte.
d- eosinophil.
e- basophil.


16- Which of the following initiates the coagulation cascade in vivo?
a- Factor XII.
b- Thrombin.
c- Tissue factor.
d- Factor X.
e- Prekallikrein.


17- What does von Willebrand factor do?
a- Binds platelets to each other.
b- Binds platelets to the subendothelium.
c- Binds platelets to the phospholipid surface.
d- Carries factor VII.
e- Cleaves factor V.


18- Which of the following anti-clotting substances acts on factors V and VIII?
a- Anti-thrombin III.
b- Protein C.
c- Anti-heparin.
d- Plasmin.
e- t-PA.


19- Which of the following is a cofactor?
a- XII.
b- X.
c- VIII.
d- VII.
e- II.


================================================


Answers

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Answered questions on Blood physiology by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle   السبت أكتوبر 17, 2015 12:38 am


Q: Why there is increase in ESR with pregnancy?
============
Answer:
======
Factors affecting ESR include plasma proteins as increased albumin decreases while increased globulin and fibrinogen increases ESR.

Thus, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) increases during pregnancy due to:

(1)an increase in fibrinogen and globulin levels

(2)a fall in the amount of albumin





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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Answered questions on Blood physiology by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle   السبت أكتوبر 17, 2015 8:40 am

Q: Why fibrinogen increases with pregnancy?
===========
Answer:
=====
There are many physiological changes that occur during pregnancy (refer to my lecture by the same title) including plasma protein changes in which fibrinogen (clotting factor I) is increased physiologically as an adaptive mechanism to prevent post partum bleeding.

for more information see this video:
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Answered questions on Blood physiology by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle   الثلاثاء أكتوبر 20, 2015 7:21 pm

Q: How does body fluids loss affect body hormones?
===========
Answer:
=====
Loss of body fluids affects level of body hormones which try to correct hypovolemia that result i.e.
1-Aldosterone, cortisol, ADH, Renin and angiotensin II are increased to increase body fluids.
2-ANP secretion is inhibited to decrease fluid loss in urine.






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Answered questions on Blood physiology by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle
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