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 Questions (short essay and MCQs) with their answers on renal physiology by dr Khaled A Abulfadle

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مُساهمةموضوع: Questions (short essay and MCQs) with their answers on renal physiology by dr Khaled A Abulfadle   السبت ديسمبر 24, 2011 7:24 pm

Short essay questions:


1-Hormones increase sodium reabsorption include………..


2-Factors increase potassium excretion include ………………………..


3-Factors affecting calcium absorption. ……………….


4-Role of ADH in urine concentration …………………..


5- Role of loop of Henle in urine concentration …………………..


6- Role of vasa recta in urine concentration …………………..


7- Role of urea in urine concentration ………………….


8- Role of collecting duct in urine concentration …………………..


9-Hormones affecting kidney function ………………………….


10-Renal blood flow is decreased by …………………..


11-Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism………………..


12-Factors affecting GFR include ………………..


13-Primary urine is different from plasma in ……………….


14-GFR is measured by ……………...


15-Glomerular membrane is formed of ……………….


16-Functions of LH include ……………….


17-Micturition reflex ………………


18-Micturition abnormalities include …………………


Multiple Choice Questions:

1-Co-transport of glucose:
a-is equivalent to a uniport for glucose.
b-will not be affected if the Na+/K+ pump is blocked.
c-cannot move glucose against its concentration gradient.
d-is equivalent to an antiproton.
e-depends on the interaction of Na+ with the glucose carrier.


2-Renin is produced and secreted from granules located in the:
a- macula densa.
b- mesangial cells.
c- intercalated cells.
d- afferent arteriole.
e- interstitial cells.


3-Sodium is actively reabsorbed from the renal tubule in which of the following nephron segments?
a- proximal tubule.
b- distal tubule.
c- thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
d- all of the above.
e- none of the above.


4-Renal blood flow is kept constant over a wide range of arterial pressures (about 60 – 180 mmHg). What is this range of pressure referred to as?
a- the myogenic pressure threshold.
b- the autoregulatory range.
c- the threshold range.
d-extrinsic regulation range.
e-neurogenic regulation range.


5- Which two factors are controlled by tubuloglomerular feedback?
a- GFR and RBF.
b- RBF and tubular load.
c- GFR and tubular load.
d- Filtration fraction and RBF.
e- GFR and filtration fraction.


6- Which of the following statements about glomerular filtration is NOT true?
a- The endothelium of the glomerular capillary is an important barrier to the passage of plasma proteins.
b- The glomerular basement membrane prevents the filtration of large plasma proteins.
c- The filtration slits between the podocytes help to retard the filtration of plasma proteins.
d- About 7 grams of albumin are filtered daily and reabsorbed by the proximal tubule.
e- Reducing the net negative charge on the components of the glomerular barrier will result in increased filtration of plasma proteins.


7- Nephron cells that respond to the concentration of filtrate are………………..
a- alpha cells
b- beta cells.
c- juxtaglomerular cells.
d- cystic cells.
e- macula densa cells.


8-Which of the following will result in triggering more renin release?
a. decrease in renal afferent arteriolar pressure
b. increase in sympathetic neural activity
c. abnormally low NaCl level in the tubular fluid passing through the distal tubule
d. answers a, b and c are all correct
e. none of the above


9-Which of the following will result in triggering more aldosterone release?
a. a decrease in plasma K+ levels
b. a reduction in circulating angiotensin II levels
c. block of angiotensin converting enzyme
d. stimulation of renin release
e. an elevation in mean arterial pressure


10-Which of the following will result in triggering more ADH release?

a. an increase in blood osmolarity
b. an increase in blood volume
c. an increase in blood pressure
d. answers a, b and c are all correct
e. none of the above


11-What is the free water clearance considering the follow lab values?
Urine volume = 2 ml/min
Urine Osmolarity = 600 mOsm
Plasma Osmolarity = 300 mOsm
a. -2
b. +6
c. 0
d. -1
e. +3


12-Micturition …………………..
a-is a brainstem reflex.
b-center is LHCs of C2, 3 and 4.
c- is stimulated by sympathetic stimulation.
d-is the transport of urine from kidney to ureter.
e-is a visceral spinal reflex.


13-Which substance would not be expected in urine normally?
a- Chloride.
b- Protein.
c- Water.
d- Nitrogenous waste.
e- Sodium.


14- The functional unit of the kidney that produces urine is called the ……………..
a- renal pelvis.
b- neuron.
c-loop of Henle
d- collecting duct.
e- nephron.


15- Tubular reabsorption moves substnaces from the …….. to the ……………….
a- tubule lumen; collecting duct.
b- peritubular capillaries; tubule lumen.
c- tubule lumen; peritubular capillaries.
d- renal artery; efferent arteriole.
e- afferent arteriole; efferent arteriole.


16- A major function of the loop of Henle is to actively pump ………. from the lumen to the interstitial cells (interstitium).
a- glucose.
b- water.
c- sodium
d- fructose.
e- large proteins.


17- If blood pressure increases, which of the following will be true?
a- larger volume of urine.
b- increase sodium reabsorption.
c- urine more concentrated.
d- lower rate of glomerular filtration.
e- lower rate of blood flow.


18-ADH …………….
a-is synthesized by posterior pituitary.
b-secretion is stimulated by hypervolemia.
c-increases permeability of distal tubules to water.
d-excess causes diabetes insipidus.
e-indirectly decreases urea reabsorption.


19-Facultative water reabsorption occurs in…………..
a-proximal convoluted tubule.
b-vasa recta.
c-Bowman's capsule.
d-collecting duct.
e-loop of Henle.


20-Counter-current osmotic multiplier mechanism is the function of ………………
a-proximal convoluted tubule.
b-vasa recta.
c-Bowman's capsule.
d-collecting duct.
e-loop of Henle.


21- Counter-current exchanger mechanism is the function of ………………
a-proximal convoluted tubule.
b-vasa recta.
c-Bowman's capsule.
d-collecting duct.
e-loop of Henle.







True/False Questions:

22-The looping configuration of the vasa recta is important to preserving the hypo-osmotic interstitium of the renal medulla.


23-Renin is a proteolytic enzyme that cleaves the angiotensinogen produced by the liver.


24-The kidney rapidly changes the body’s blood volume in pace with short-term (seconds/minutes) fluctuations in blood pressure.


25-Pressure natriuresis is largely a proximal nephron phenomena that does not involving any pressure sensing receptors.


26-Aldosterone is peptide hormone released from the adrenal medulla.


27-Antidiuertic hormone (ADH) causes the water permeability of the collecting duct to decrease.


28-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) promotes the secretion of Na+ into the renal tubular fluid.


29-A negative free water clearance means that the urine is dilute and excess water is being excreted in the urine.






Answers



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Questions (short essay and MCQs) with their answers on renal physiology by dr Khaled A Abulfadle
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